A quatrain is a verse with 4 traces, or maybe a complete poem containing 4 traces, having an unbiased and separate theme. Often one line consists of alternating rhyme, present in lots of forms. We can hint back quatrains in poetic traditions of numerous historic civilizations, which include China, Ancient Rome, and Ancient Greece; and they keep to appear in the twenty-first century.
During the Dark Ages in Europe, the Middle East, and Iran, polymath poets like Omar Khayyam popularized this type of poetry. It gained popularity with the call of Rubai in Iran, and has a probable rhyme scheme of aabb, aaaa and abab.
Types of Quatrain
In formal poetry, rhyme scheme and meter define different sorts of quatrain. There are many styles of quatrain, but the most not unusual types include:
Ballad Stanza – Its rhyme scheme is abab with iambic tetrameter.
Envelope Stanza – Its rhyme scheme is abba with iambic tetrameter.
Goethe Stanza – Its rhyme scheme is abab however no meter.
Italian Quatrain – Its rhyme scheme is abba with iambic pentameter.
Hymnal Quatrain – This multi stanza contains 3 alternating rhymes with iambic trimester and iambic tetrameter. Rhyme scheme is a4 b3 c4 b3.
Elegiac Stanza – This makes use of abab rhyme scheme with iambic pentameter.
Memoriam Stanza – This uses abba rhyme scheme with iambic tetrameter.
Examples of Quatrain in Literature
Example #1: Stopping via Woods On a Snowy Evening (By Robert Frost)
“He gives his harness bells a shake
To ask if there’s a few mistake.
The only other sound’s the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake.”
This poem contains 4 quatrains with specific rhyme schemes. This stanza rhymes as aaba, in which the first and 2nd lines rhyme with the remaining line. Frost has used iambic tetrameter, eight syllables in every line with normal rhythm, presenting a super example of Rubaiyat stanza, which also includes aaba rhyme scheme with 4 lines.
Example #2: Hope is the Thing with Feathers (By Emily Dickinson)
“Hope is the aspect with feathers
That perches within the soul,
And sings the tune with out the words,
And never stops at all…”
This entire poem is written in iambic trimeter pattern, and has three quatrains. However, it regularly adds a fourth stress at the cease of the traces, inclusive of inside the fourth line of this stanza. This stanza loosely rhymes with rhythmical drift in abab pattern.
Example #3: A Red, Red Rose (By Robert Burns)
“O, my luve’s like a purple, crimson rose,
That’s newly sprung in June:
O, my luve’s just like the melodie
That’s sweetly played in tune.”
These traces embody an example of Hymnal Stanza, wherein we see the poet having written in alternating quatrain with iambics. The first and third strains follow iambic tetrameter, even as the second one and fourth lines comply with iambic trimeter, the usage of the rhyme scheme of abcb. This alternating meter makes the poem more voiced and pronounced.
Example #4: Look Before You Leap (By W. H. Auden)
“The involved efforts of the busy heap,
The dirt, the imprecision, and the beer
Produce a few clever wisecracks every year;
Laugh in case you can, however you'll should leap.”
This is an example of the envelope stanza, wherein the quatrain follows the rhyme scheme of abba, with iambic tetrameter. In this type of quatrain, the primary and fourth lines enclose the second and 1/3 lines.
Example #5: Elegy Written in Country Courtyard (By Thomas Gray)
“The tolls curfew the knell of parting day,
The lowing herd wind slowly o’er the lea,
The plowman homeward plods his weary way,
And leaves the world to darkness and to me.”
This quatrain is presenting an example of elegiac stanza, written in iambic pentameter with rhyme scheme abab. It is likewise referred as “heroic stanza,” as its rhyme is similar to a heroic couplet.
Example #6: In Memoriam A. H. H (By Alfred Lord Tennyson)
“So phrase by using phrase, and line via line,
The dead guy touch’d me from the past,
And suddenly it seem’d at closing
The dwelling soul became flash’d on mine.”
This example of memoriam stanza with rhyme scheme of abba follows the iambic tetrameter pattern (each line contains 4 iambs).
Function of Quatrain
Quatrain is a completely popular stanza, and crucial poetic shape in English literature. It determines a particular style of expression, and shapes the structure of a poem. The rhyming traces of a quatrain supply it a everyday rhythm. In addition, it gives language a satisfactory arrangement by using accents on syllables and adding variations of rhyme scheme. A quatrain makes use of speech in a everyday pattern, and converts a everyday text into a dramatic shape. Besides, it creates a rhythmic experience in literary works.
Popular Literary Devices
- Ad Hominem
- Deus Ex Machina
- Double Entendre
- Flash Forward
- Half Rhyme
- Internal Rhyme
- Line Break
- Non Sequitur
- Pathetic Fallacy
- Poetic Justice
- Point of View
- Red Herring
- Tragic Flaw