Tragedy is a form of drama that offers a serious subject rely approximately human struggling and corresponding terrible activities in a dignified way.
The term is Greek in origin, dating lower back to the fifth century BC, whilst it become assigned by using the Greeks to a specific shape of plays executed at festivals in Greece. The neighborhood governments supported such plays, and the temper surrounding the presentation of these plays become that of a religious ceremony, as the complete community, in conjunction with the grand priest, attended the performances.
The concern count number of Greek tragedies become derived mainly from Homer’s Iliad, and Odyssey, which blanketed misfortunes of heroes of history and religious mythology. The three distinguished Greek dramatists were Aeschylus (525–456 BC), Sophocles (496–406 BC), and Euripides (480–406 BC).
Aristotle’s Definition of Tragedy
Aristotle defines Tragedy in his well-known work Poetics as:
“Tragedy is an imitation of an motion this is admirable, complete (composed of an introduction, a middle part and an ending), and possesses magnitude; in language made pleasurable, every of its species separated in one-of-a-kind parts; done by using actors, not thru narration; effecting via pity and fear the purification of such emotions.”
From the above definition, we can understand the goal of the Greek tragedies, that's the “…purification of such emotions,” additionally called “catharsis.” Catharsis is a release of emotional tension, after an overwhelming experience, that restores or refreshes the spirit.
Shaped on the models of Seneca, the first English tragedy appeared in 1561, written through Thomas Norton and Thomas Sackville. The play chose the tale of a British king and his sufferings on the hand of his two disobedient sons as a subject rely. The significance of the play lies inside the fact that it converted the fashion of English drama, from morality and mystery plays, to the writing of tragedies in the Elizabethan era.
Below is the list of prominent English tragedy writers and their famous works:
A. Christopher Marlowe
Marlowe changed into the first English dramatist worth of the way of life of Greek tragedy. The characters of his tragedies are the super guys of history, who became victims of their very own fate.
The Jew of Malta
B. William Shakespeare
Shakespeare, the most popular of all playwrights, knew the Greek tragedy fashion well and he used several Greek themes but modified them to his personal purpose. He intentionally violates the harmony of action and mixes tragic moves with comical. Examples of tragedy written by way of Shakespeare include:
Antony and Cleopatra
Troilus and Cressida
C. John Webster
Webster became a Jacobean dramatist who modeled his tragedies on the Shakespearean model. Among his well-known works are the following tragedy examples:
The White Devil
The Duchess of Malfi
D. Henrick Ibsen
He is thought as “the daddy of realism”. He turned into the writer of some of the famous tragedies also called “problem plays”. His well-known works are:
A Doll’s House
The Wild Duck
Emperor and Galilean
E. Arthur Miller
He is a well-known American playwright and essayist. His well-known works are:
All My Sons
Death of a Salesman
A View from the Bridge
The Difference Between Greek and English Tragedies
We notice the following differences between the tragedies by using the Greek playwrights, and people written by English playwrights:
Theme/Plot Focused on a single topic and plot Have numerous tale lines developing on the same time into plots and sub-plots
Character Origins “extraordinary” characters had been mortals who have been equal to gods in their significance Heroes come from all walks of life
Subject Matter Serious, treated in a dignified way Mixed tragic with comic
(Modern playwrights argue that such depiction is closer to existence as our lifestyles is a mixture of exact and terrible fortunes.)
Purpose/Objective Religious coaching Instructive of a spiritual or ethical issue, although their primary goal is to entertain.
Popular Literary Devices
- Ad Hominem
- Deus Ex Machina
- Double Entendre
- Flash Forward
- Half Rhyme
- Internal Rhyme
- Line Break
- Non Sequitur
- Pathetic Fallacy
- Poetic Justice
- Point of View
- Red Herring
- Tragic Flaw