Nemesis Definition
Nemesis is a literary tool that refers to a situation of poetic justice, where the best characters are rewarded for their virtues, and the evil characters are punished for his or her vices.

The term nemesis comes from Nemesis – the goddess of revenge in Greek mythology – and divine retribution sought in opposition to the humans guilty of hubris. In a trendy sense, nemesis refers to an indomitable rival, or an inescapable scenario that causes misery and death. For instance, you may have encountered your nemesis at faculty – a boy who's no greater capable than you are, but who somehow constantly finishes in advance of you in faculty examinations, making you feel frustrated.

Examples of Nemesis in Literature
We locate some of examples of nemesis in both ancient and modern literature. Let us analyze a few:

Example #1: Oedipus Rex (By Sophocles)
In a famous Greek tragedy Oedipus Rex, by way of Sophocles, the nemesis of King Oedipus is his hubris or excessive pride. He is so proud that he does now not even decrease from defying prophecies of the gods. We see that the king finally ends up doing what he fears and tries to avoid.

The Oracle of Delphi tells him that he'll kill his father and marry his mother. In his try and defy the gods’ prophecy, he leaves Corinth, and travels towards Thebes. On his way, he kills an vintage man in a quarrel. He later marries the queen of Thebes as he ascends the throne, after turning in the city from a lethal sphinx.

One can argue that Oedipus commits all of these sins in complete ignorance, yet he deserves retribution because he turns into so swollen with delight that he does not even shy from attempting to revolt towards his fate. Thus, his nemesis is his arrogance.

Example #2: Doctor Faustus (By Christopher Marlowe)
In Christopher Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus, Faustus’ nemesis became his pride in his scholarship, and his overambitious nature. Overcome by way of his irresistible desire, he sells his soul to Lucifer, through signing a settlement along with his blood. He defies Christianity via gaining knowledge of the art of black magic, consequently deciding to buy his conceitedness and his satisfaction. As the time noted in the contract with the devil exhausts, the devil takes his soul to Hell, in which he suffers everlasting damnation.

Example #3: Hamlet (By William Shakespeare)
We discover nemesis examples in Shakespeare’s Hamlet: Hamlet, and Hamlet’s indecisiveness. Hamlet acts as a nemesis for Claudius, who kills Hamlet’s father and marries his mother. Claudius’ devilishness calls for instant retribution. The ghost of Hamlet’s dead father seems to him, and convinces him to specific revenge. He reveals Claudius as the real murderer, and after a whole lot indecisive thinking kills him.

In the identical play, Hamlet’s nemesis is his indecisiveness. He is not able to make up his thoughts approximately the quandary he confronts. He discloses his nation of mind inside the following traces in Act 3, Scene 1 of the play:

“To be, or not to be – this is the question:
Whether ’tis nobler within the thoughts to suffer
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune
Or to take arms towards a sea of troubles
And through opposing cease them. To die, to sleep…”

He wants to take vengeance on his father’s murderer, Claudius. but destroys his own life by way of suspending the act as he looks for proof to validate his action. In the process, however, he spoils his relationship with his mother, and sends Ophelia into this type of kingdom of depression that she commits suicide.

Example #4: Frankenstein (By Mary Shelley)
In Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, the protagonist Victor exhibits hubris in his mission to turn out to be an unmatched scientist. After years of experiments, he triumphs in creating a “monster,” which he calls “Frankenstein.” Ironically, the factor which he considers his ultimate invention proves his nemesis. Frankenstein ultimately turns into the supply of Victor’s disaster, punishing him justly for his over-ambition.

Function of Nemesis
The main function of nemesis in a literary work is to establish grounds for poetic justice. Nemesis acts as a supply of punishment for hubristic and wicked characters on universal moral grounds. Wicked and evil individuals need to be penalized for their evilness.

Besides, it imparts a moral lesson to the readers to broaden and refine the characters, in order to make certain they get rid of positive flaws that could prove to be their nemesis in time to come.
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