Sarcasm is derived from the French phrase sarcasmor, and also from the Greek phrase sarkazein, which means “tear flesh,” or “grind the teeth.” Somehow, in simple words it means to talk bitterly.
Generally, the literal which means is exceptional than what the speaker intends to say through sarcasm. Sarcasm is a literary and rhetorical tool that is meant to mock, frequently with satirical or ironic remarks, to be able to amuse and hurt someone, or a few section of society, simultaneously. For instance:
“I didn’t attend the funeral, however I sent a pleasing letter announcing I accredited of it.” (Mark Twain)
Types of Sarcasm
Sarcasm regularly relies upon upon the voice tone. There are seven types:
Self-Deprecating Sarcasm – This class of sarcasm expresses an overstated experience of inferiority and worthlessness.
Brooding Sarcasm – In this criticism, the speaker utters some thing polite. However, the tone of his speech has a marked bitterness to it.
Deadpan Sarcasm – It is expressed without emotion or laughter, making it tough for the listener to judge whether or not the speaker is joking or mocking.
Polite Sarcasm – A speaker is said to have brought a well mannered sarcasm while his listeners handiest get to comprehend that his type remark turned into a sarcastic one when they had given it some thought.
Obnoxious Sarcasm – This sort of sarcasm makes humans sense like punching the speaker in the face. It is not very funny, and it receives underneath your skin.
Manic Sarcasm – This type of sarcasm is brought in an unnatural satisfied mood, which makes the speaker appear to be he has long gone crazy.
Raging Sarcasm – This sort of sarcasm relies in particular on exaggeration and violent threats.
Examples of Sarcasm in Literature
Example #1: Julius Caesar (By William Shakespeare)
“Friends, countrymen, lend me your ears.”
Mark Antony repeatedly uses the phrase “honorable man” in this speech several, though Brutus’ movements in murdering Caesar had been honestly now not honorable. His repetition of this phrase completely reverses the literal which means of the phrase.
Example #2: Hamlet, Act 1 Scene 2 (By William Shakespeare)
“Thrift, thrift, Horatio! The funeral bak’d meats did coldly supply forth the wedding tables.”
The most disturbing issue to Hamlet in this play is his mother’s marriage to his uncle. While talking to Horatio in a sarcastic manner, Hamlet sums up the ridiculous affairs using this statement.
Example #3: Mending Walls (By Robert Frost)
“Good fences make right pals.”
This line points out, in a sarcastic way, two neighbors who've made a wall among them. However, this wall falls apart each winter, consequently the buddies meet and mend it, as a result spending greater time collectively in this way.
Example #4: Road no longer taken (By Robert Frost)
“Two roads diverged in a wood, and I,
I took the one less traveled through, and that has made all of the difference.”
The poet is talking approximately roads, one is not traveled often by using human beings, and the opposite one is chosen by way of the majority of human beings. He had taken the much less-traveled street. Frost uses a sarcastic remark, that he feels regret for having selected this route or avenue which made a difference.
Example #5: Canterbury Tales (By Geoffrey Chaucer)
“A FRERE ther changed into, a wantown and a merye,
A limitour, a ful solempne man,
So muche of daliaunce and honest langage.
He hadde maad ful many a mariage
Of yonge wommen, at his owne cost.
Ful wel biloved and famulier was he
With frankeleyns over-al in his contree,
He wiste that a man was repentaunt.
For many a man so tough is of his herte…”
Here, Chaucer describes the character of the friar in a sarcastic manner. He is a clergyman, who accepts bribes from wealthy human beings of the town. He makes use of cash that he's taking from confessions on merry-making and women; and doesn’t care about the human beings.
Example #6: Romeo and Juliet (By William Shakespeare)
“Wherefore artwork thou, Romeo?”
This is the central struggle in this play, when Juliet ironically asks Romeo that why his name is Romeo, when you consider that they could never be collectively as their families were enemies.
Function of Sarcasm
Sarcasm may be used for plenty purposes. However, in most of the cases, it is applied as a masks or scathe. Others use it as a protecting mechanism. It is used while bitterness is hard to explicit in a pleasant way, or the objective is to say something with out hurting somebody directly. The basic cause of sarcasm in literary works is to bring a flavor to be able to make the tales seem real to the readers.
Popular Literary Devices
- Ad Hominem
- Deus Ex Machina
- Double Entendre
- Flash Forward
- Half Rhyme
- Internal Rhyme
- Line Break
- Non Sequitur
- Pathetic Fallacy
- Poetic Justice
- Point of View
- Red Herring
- Tragic Flaw