Foucault presents probably the best definition of discourse. He defines discourse as, “Systems of thoughts composed of ideas, attitudes, and courses of action, beliefs and practices that systematically construct the topics and the worlds of which they speak.”

Originally, it has roots inside the Latin language. The time period assumes slightly special meanings in specific contexts. In literature, discourse manner speech or writing, commonly longer than sentences, which offers with a sure problem formally. In other words, discourse is the presentation of language in its entirety, while acting an intellectual inquiry in a particular location or subject, including theological discourse or cultural discourse.

General Classifications of Discourse
Discourse may be classified into four essential categories, namely:

The primary awareness of this kind of discourse is to make the target market aware of the topic of the discussion. Definitions and comparative analysis of extraordinary ideas and ideals are examples of discourse exposition.

Narration is a type of discourse that relies on stories, folklore or a drama as a medium of communication.
Stage play, story, and folklore are narrative discourse examples.

This kind includes describing something in terms of the senses. Descriptive discourse enables the target audience to expand a mental picture of what is being discussed. Descriptive components of novel or essay are descriptive discourse examples.

This form of discourse is based totally on valid good judgment and, through accurate reasoning, tries to inspire the audience. Examples of argumentative discourse encompass lectures, essays, and prose.

Examples of Discourse in Literature
Poetic Discourse
Poetic discourse is a type of literary verbal exchange which makes a speciality of the expression of emotions, ideas, imaginations, events, and locations through particular rhymes and rhythms. Poetic discourse uses common phrases in appealing ways to present emotions and emotions. The mechanism of poetic discourse involves sure steps beginning from one-of-a-kind sources, then entering the intellectual process, intellectual realization, and then sooner or later into a completed product as poetry.

Example #1: A Character (By William Wordsworth)
“I wonder how Nature should ever find space
For so many unusual contrasts in one human face:
There’s idea and no concept, and there’s paleness and bloom
And bustle and sluggishness, delight and gloom.”

Expressive Discourse
Expressive discourse does no longer involve the presentation of facts, or the motivating of others, but is rather a reflection of our feelings that shape the muse of our expressions. This is a form of primary or entry-level discourse, and is useful for beginners in the area of literature. It more often than not offers with generating ideas with out a concrete source. Examples include instructional essays and diaries.

Example #2: The Diary of Samuel Pepys (By Samuel Pepys, 1660)
“We met very early at our workplace this morning to select out the twenty-5 ships which are to be first paid off. After that to Westminster and dined with Mr. Dalton at his workplace, in which we had one top notch court docket dish, but our papers now not being performed we could [not] make an end of our business till Monday next. Mr. Dalton and I over the water to our landlord Vanly, with whom we agree as to Dalton …”

Transactional Discourse
The fundamental goal in this type of discourse is to carry the message in such a manner that it is actually understood without any confusion. Whatever is said has no ambiguity – everything is clear for the reader. Usually, this type of discourse is in energetic voice. Examples encompass instructions, guidelines, manuals, privacy policies, and patient commands as written through doctors.

Function of Discourse
The role of discourse is hard to disregard in our daily intellectual pursuits, for it provides a basis to behavior a comparative evaluation and body our perceptions approximately special things. For instance, two competing discourses about the civil war in Syria today can be used to qualify the conflict as either “battle in opposition to dictatorship,” or “warfare against imperialism.” On the alternative hand, it may be deemed as “battle towards Islam,” or “warfare for humanity.” Thus, both discourses offer a distinct style, vocabulary, and presentation, which are required to deliver the respective ideas to a selected target audience.

According to Jacques Lucan and Ferdinand de Saussure, language (discourse) is the primary force which works in the back of all kinds of human sports and adjustments in social fabric; while Modernists attribute discourse to development and progress. Another crucial feature of discourse is to generate and preserve fact as argued by the Postmodernist theories.
Direct Characterization Dissonance