Naturalism is a literary style that started as a movement in late nineteenth century in literature, film, theater, and art. It is a form of intense realism. This motion counseled the roles of circle of relatives, social conditions, and surroundings in shaping human individual. Thus, naturalistic writers write stories based on the idea that surroundings determines and governs human person.
We also see use of a number of the scientific ideas in naturalistic works, and people suffering for survival in hostile and alien society. In fact, naturalism took its cue from Darwin’s principle of evolution, which holds that life is like a battle and only the fittest live on.
Naturalism vs. Realism
Both naturalism and realism are literary genres and interlinked. However, there are some differences among them:
Naturalism shows a philosophical pessimism wherein writers use scientific strategies to depict human beings as goal and independent characters; whereas realism makes a speciality of literary technique.
Realism depicts matters as they appear, whilst naturalism portrays a deterministic view of a individual’s moves and existence.
Naturalism concludes that natural forces predetermine a person’s decisions, making him/her act in a particular way. Realism poses that a selection of a man or woman comes from his reaction to a sure situation.
Examples of Naturalism in Literature
Example #1: The Grapes of Wrath (By John Steinbeck)
John Steinbeck is one the most famous writers coming from the faculty of American naturalism. Steinbeck, in his novel The Grapes of Wrath, portrays the Joad own family and its converting environment from the naturalistic factor of view, at some stage in the t Great Depression in the United States. He depicts the Joad family as insignificant, instinct-bound, and small creatures sure to are trying to find a paradise they might never find.
Initially, when the Joads depart home, they may be very simple and animal-like people, who should barely understand their plight. They face steady competition from two effective predators – society and nature. However, as the narrative progresses, they begin to adapt to new circumstances.
Example #2: The Open Boat (By Stephen Crane)
Stephen Crane, in his short story The Open Boat, portrays guys on a boat, representing human endurance towards detached nature, wherein they sense themselves helpless. Thus, it carries a subject matter of naturalism. Whenever a big wave of water arrives, it shuts the entirety from the men’s view, and that they imagine this particular wave would be the final outbreak of the ocean, like in the following lines:
“If I am going to be drowned–if I am going to be drowned, why, within the name of the seven gods, who rule the seven seas,?”
This lays emphasis on their warfare for survival and shortage of choice. Besides, The Open Boat symbolically represents human place in the big universe where man struggles against nature. Then we see a particular determination, as guys can not play any part in their outcome, which ends up in sudden demise of Oiler, in spite of being an professional sailor.
Example #3: The Awakening (By Kate Chopin)
Kate Chopin’s novel, The Awakening, offers an example of an excellent naturalistic novel, as its main person, Edna Pontellier, lives in a world where nobody is aware her. Neither does she fit inside the Creole society. This frequently causes misunderstandings in her lifestyles, as she can’t understand its people:
“Edna wondered in the event that they had all gone mad.”
Then, she realizes that she has chosen the wrong man as her husband:
“…taking off her wedding ring, flung it upon the carpet. She stamped her heel upon it, striving to weigh down it …”
In addition, we see the willpower by way of man or woman trends and by societal forces inner the circle of relatives. Consequently, Edna will become a victim of her sociological pressures.
Example #4: To Build A Fire (By Jack London)
The topic in Jack London’s novel, To Build A Fire, is man versus nature; thus it's far another properly example of naturalism. Naturalism on this novel suggests how people want to be cautious at each corner, as demise may want to attain them anywhere, watching for them to commit a mistake and take their lives. We see the story is ready a man together with his dog trying to continue to exist harsh, cold weather with the aid of constructing a fire. In fact, the author uses the Darwinian Theory of “survival of the fittest” in his work.
Function of Naturalism
The effect that naturalism has left on literary writers is colossal, leading to the evolution of the current movement. Generally, naturalistic works expose darkish aspects of existence such as prejudice, racism, poverty, prostitution, filth, and disease. Since these works are frequently pessimistic and blunt, they acquire heavy criticism. Despite the echoing pessimism in this literary output, naturalists are usually worried with enhancing the human circumstance around the world.
Popular Literary Devices
- Ad Hominem
- Deus Ex Machina
- Double Entendre
- Flash Forward
- Half Rhyme
- Internal Rhyme
- Line Break
- Non Sequitur
- Pathetic Fallacy
- Poetic Justice
- Point of View
- Red Herring
- Tragic Flaw