A literary technique, prosody is the look at of meter, intonation, and rhythm of a poetic work. It is a phonetic time period that makes use of meter, rhythm, tempo, pitch, and loudness in a speech for conveying information about the meanings and structure of an utterance. In addition, prosody is an crucial element of language that contributes in the direction of rhythmic and acoustic effects in a piece of writing. It consists of exceptional elements, together with scansion, sound, pace, and meaning.
Types of Prosody
There are four distinguishable prosodic metrical patterns, which are:
Syllabic Prosody – Syllabic prosody counts a hard and fast range of syllables in each line, while accent, tone, and quantity play a secondary role.
Accentual Prosody – Accentual prosody measures best the accents or stresses in a line of verse, even as the overall variety of syllables might also range in a line. It is very commonplace in Germanic, antique English, and modern English verses.
Accentual-syllabic Prosody – Accentual-syllabic prosody counts both the quantity of syllables and accents in every line. We usually find it in English poetry.
Quantitative Prosody – Quantitative prosody does not degree the variety of syllables, rather relying upon period of syllables. This may be decided by the quantity of time used on pronunciation, including a free-verse poem that consists of unmeasured lines. We locate this kind of prosody in Roman and classical Greek poetry, and most effective very rarely in English poetry.
Examples of Prosody in Literature
Example #1: In My Craft or Sullen Art (By Dylan Thomas)
“In my craft or sullen art
Exercised within the nevertheless night
When best the moon rages
And the fanatics lie abed
With all their griefs of their arms,
I labour via singing light …
But for the commonplace wages
of their most secret heart.”
This extract is an instance of syllabic verse, which includes constrained or a set number of syllables. Here, in this poem every line includes seven syllables, except the final line. However, it does now not observe a consistent burdened sample.
Example #2: what if a miles of a which of a wind (By E. E. Cummings)
“what if a much of a which of a wind
offers the fact to summer’s lie;
bloodies with dizzying leaves the sun
and yanks immortal stars awry?
Blow king to beggar and queen to seem
(blow buddy to fiend: blow area to time)
—when skies are hanged and oceans drowned,
the unmarried secret will nonetheless be man…”
This poem is presenting a terrific instance of accentual verse, wherein the variety of stressed syllables remains steady at four. They are underlined above, however the general number of syllables in each line does no longer remain consistent and modifications from seven to ten.
Example #3: To My Dear and Loving Husband (By Anne Bradstreet)
“If ever two had been one, then truly we.
If ever man had been cherished by way of wife, then thee;
If ever wife was satisfied in a man,
Compare with me, ye women, in case you can.
I prize thy love more than complete mines of gold …”
This poem is an excellent example of accentual-syllabic verse, which focuses on both the quantity of syllables, and the wide variety of accents in each poetic line. This iambic pentameter poem is one among the pleasant examples of accented syllabic verse, as it contains 5 iambs in every line, and follows a strictly measured syllabic pattern.
Example #4: Aeneid (By Virgil)
“Arma virumque cano, Troiae qui primus ab oris…”
This commencing line of Virgil’s Aeneid is a classic model of quantitative prosody. Look at the pressure pattern that's irregular. As this type of prosody does no longer have measured syllables, it measures the meter consistent with duration of time to pronounce a line.
Function of Prosody
Prosody has multiple functions in literature. For instance, poets contain it in matters like syntactic phrasing, word segmentation, sentence, accentuation, strain, and phonological distinctions. Generally, authors use it to supply rhythmic and acoustic outcomes in poetry as well as prose. However, it has expressive and pragmatic capabilities, due to the fact a positive sentence in a given angle expresses more than simply its linguistic meanings.
An expressive content might be an identification of a speaker, his mood, age, sex, and other extra-linguistic features. Pragmatic feature of prosody encompasses the mindset of speaker and listener, and gives relationship among a speaker and his or her discourse. It additionally reflects unique capabilities of a speaker and his utterance, emotional state, form of utterance, presence of sarcasm or irony, and emphasis.
Popular Literary Devices
- Ad Hominem
- Deus Ex Machina
- Double Entendre
- Flash Forward
- Half Rhyme
- Internal Rhyme
- Line Break
- Non Sequitur
- Pathetic Fallacy
- Poetic Justice
- Point of View
- Red Herring
- Tragic Flaw