Dilemma is a Greek word that means “double proposition,” or “perplexing scenario,” which affords two specific possibilities, both of which seem practically acceptable. Dilemma is a rhetorical device wherein a conflicting scenario arises for a person to pick between proper and wrong, where each appear of identical worth. Often instances, catch 22 situation involves an ethically wrong decision that can produce desirable outcomes, however that may have moral consequences. Or it involves a choice wherein a person wishes to choose one of the options, both of which can be equally suitable or bad.
Examples of Dilemma in Literature
Example #1: Hamlet (By William Shakespeare)
In the play Hamlet, William Shakespeare’s main character, Hamlet, struggles with a predicament in the way to out the orders of his father’s ghost to kill his stepfather; in an effort to precise revenge for marrying his mother, and usurping the throne. Ophelia also faces a dilemma inside the play, as her brother and father consider that Hamlet isn't faithful to her, and could instead use her; whereas her heart is convinced that Hamlet loves her. Neither of them may want to reconcile the scenario following the ethical dilemmas they were given entangled in.
Example #2: Dr. Faustus (By Christopher Marlowe)
We discover a perfect example of ethical predicament in Christopher Marlowe’s play, Dr. Faustus. His most important ethical quandary is he desires to get enormous information for his benefit, but intends to use it to take advantage of others. For this, he sells his soul to the representative of Mephistopheles. We see his ethical predicament through his lust. He needs to get matters that were not possible to get, like strength to rule an entire kingdom, however at heart he feels that he's doing wrong.
Example #3: Othello (By William Shakespeare)
William Shakespeare makes use of several conflicts in his play, Othello, and one of them is character versus character. We discover major the character, Othello, in a dilemma while he faces internal about battle whether or not he should accept as true with in Desdemona or not, and whether or not she is faithful to him or not. Othello trusts and loves her, till jealousy arises in him due to Iago’s cruel manipulations.
Example #4: Jane Eyre (By Charlotte Bronte)
Charlotte Bronte, in her novel Jane Eyre, demonstrates the characters suffering with their consciences after facing ethical dilemmas. The maximum distinguished characters are Rochester, Saint John, and Jane. While reading Saint John’s character, we come to understand that he's determined to commit his lifestyles as a missionary. He thus feels inclined to just like the work ethics of Jane, and proposes to her.
Though John loves every other girl, Rosamond Oliver, he can't marry her, as she would not make as right a wife as a missionary might. Jane, on the alternative hand, additionally struggles with a catch 22 situation when John tempts her. There is enchantment to the lifestyles of a missionary, but then she refuses due to the fact she does now not love John. Jane’s second moral dilemma comes inside the query of whether or not to marry Rochester or no longer, as he is already married to Bertha Mason. She sooner or later resolves this one by means of marrying Rochester.
Example #5: Crime and Punishment (By Fyodor Dostoyevsky)
In Fyodor Dostoyevsky’s novel Crime and Punishment, Raskolnikov commits a murder in order to test his assumption that some people have a right to act in this way because they may be capable of doing such things. Raskolnikov tries numerous instances to justify his actions, and mentally compares himself with Napoleon Bonaparte, determining that homicide is suitable for pursuing a better purpose.
Example #6: Oedipus Rex (By Sophocles)
Sophocles raises moral predicament in his extra special play Oedipus Rex, in which he falls sufferer to a fantastic tragedy when he sets out to find out the reality of his birth. He seeks the truth with the expectation that, after knowing the reality, he might be capable of set matters proper in his city. However, we learn that notwithstanding his righteous intentions, the whole lot proves to be a trauma for him. He faces the catch 22 situation of relieving the human beings from plague, or leaving it to save himself.
Function of Dilemma
In literature, predicament is a war happening within the mind of a character. Therefore, it offers readers an perception into characters’ lives. There can be a single or a couple of dilemmas in a tale. However, the cause is to create a anxiety and complexity in a narrative via adding complicated and conflicting ideas. It additionally creates suspense and excitement in the tale from the beginning to the end. Simply put, the main characters have to war, evolve, and make alternatives in a story to change effectively.
Popular Literary Devices
- Ad Hominem
- Deus Ex Machina
- Double Entendre
- Flash Forward
- Half Rhyme
- Internal Rhyme
- Line Break
- Non Sequitur
- Pathetic Fallacy
- Poetic Justice
- Point of View
- Red Herring
- Tragic Flaw