Bias is as an undue favor, guide or backing prolonged to a person, organization or race or even a controversy towards another. Although bias frequently exists within the cultural context, it can creep into diverse different kinds of academic existence and in literature which includes sexuality, gender, nation, religion, subjects, and preferred life. In other words, it is a single-facet or one-aspect illogical and non-neutral aid of a perspective in favor towards the different facet. Etymologically the word ‘bias’ has been derived from the French word “biais” because of this angle or slant.
Types of Bias
There are diverse kinds of biases. It exists even in the non-literary texts. It will be propaganda, gender-related, age-related, racial discrimination, spiritual discrimination, marginalization and also stereotyping.
Examples of Bias in Literature
By what if fed on, and yet, inside a month —
Let me now not suppose on ‘t. Frailty, thy name is woman!
(Hamlet by using William Shakespeare, Act-I, Scene-II)
Although spoken through Hamlet in the play, those strains display biased attitude of the Elizabeth playwrights in the direction of feminine gender. Some critics have interpreted these lines as misogynistic mind-set of Hamlet that he hates women, let alone his mom for her hasty marriage. What he approach is that women are generally frail creature, having no self control. Therefore, it's far a gender bias demonstrated by Hamlet.
“The Jew rubbed his hands; and, sitting down on the table, affected to chuckle on the pleasantry of his friend. He was obviously very sick at ease, however.”
(Oliver Twist with the aid of Charles Dickens)
This is an extract from Charles Dickens’ famous novel, Oliver Twist. He has provided the man or woman of Fagin, the Jew. Here Sikes taunt him for his insolence of coming between him and his dog. However, Fagin indicates very humble mindset. The language used by Sikes sincerely indicates stereotyping of the Jews. It accommodates contempt and veiled prejudice that is additionally a kind of bias.
Has she,” requested the Doctor, with a smile, “has she been associating of overdue with a circle of pseudo-intellectual girls–super-spiritual superior beings? My wife has been telling me approximately them.”
“That’s the trouble,” broke in Mr. Pontellier, “she hasn’t been associating with anyone. She has abandoned her Tuesdays at home, has thrown over all her acquaintances, and is going tramping about by means of herself, moping inside the street-cars, moving into after dark. I let you know she’s peculiar. I don’t like it; I experience a little involved over it.”
(The Awakening by Kate Chopin)
The medical doctor is truly in opposition to ladies and assumes that modern women have impacted the thoughts of Mrs. Pontellier. Mr. Pontellier is describing how his wife, Edna Pontellier has acted in a extraordinary manner than a woman having youngsters and a husband have to behave. However, the medical doctor’s views reflect his gender bias. Leonce has also verified these comments of a health practitioner. This suggests that each the guys are biased against the simplest lady in the story, Edna Pontellier.
Mark you this, Bassanio,
The devil can cite Scripture for his purpose.
An evil soul generating holy witness
Is like a villain with a smiling cheek,
A goodly apple rotten at the heart.
(The Merchant of Venice, Act-I, Scene-III with the aid of William Shakespeare)
Antonio, a person in the Merchant of Venice speaks these words approximately Shylock, the Jew. He is regarding him in relatively scornful terms to illustrate that the Jew is an evil incarnate. These lines are essential as Antonio and Bassanio show bias in opposition to Shylock or the whole Jewish community. He is being referred to as a wicked person due to his career and as though he's on the satan’s facet.
“Even now, now, very now, an old black ram
Is tupping your white ewe. Arise, arise!
Awake the snorting residents with the bell,
Or else the devil will make a grandsire of you.
Arise, I say!”
(Othello Act-1. Scene-I, by way of William Shakespeare)
These lines from Othello indicates how Iago uses bias to make Barbantio and different senators turn in opposition to Othello. He phrases him an “vintage black ram” that's a racist term. He is using a racial slur in opposition to Othello to make humans hate him.
Bias Meaning and Function
Bias in literature is used to implicitly send a message to the readers approximately unique prejudice in opposition to a community, faith, sect or race. It is used to make people aware about sure defects in human beings. It is also used to make humans suppose in a different way than they commonly do. In fact, bias is used to create prejudice, main to hatred and war-mongering. It is also called “othering” of the human beings unique from us.
Popular Literary Devices
- Ad Hominem
- Deus Ex Machina
- Double Entendre
- Flash Forward
- Half Rhyme
- Internal Rhyme
- Line Break
- Non Sequitur
- Pathetic Fallacy
- Poetic Justice
- Point of View
- Red Herring
- Tragic Flaw